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J Clin Med Res. 2016 Mar;8(3):202-9. doi: 10.14740/jocmr2440w. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

Temperament and Character Profiles and Psychiatric Comorbidities in Patients With Coronary Artery or Valvular Heart Disease: Relationship With Cardiac Disease Severity.

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Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Psychiatry Training and Research Hospital, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey.
Department of Cardiology, Kartal Kosuyolu Heart Research Hospital, Kartal, Istanbul, Turkey.



We aimed to investigate whether the psychopathological symptoms and temperament-character dimensions observed in patients operated due to coronary artery disease (CAD) or valvular heart disease (VHD) differ among the patients and from healthy individuals.


Study population was composed of subjects with CAD, VHD and healthy controls (n = 50 in each group). Socio-demographic questionnaire, temperament and character inventory (TCI) and symptom check list-90-R (SCL-90-R) were applied to all groups. Groups were compared about temperament-character dimensions and scores of subscales of SCL-90-R.


Harm avoidance was found to be higher in VHD group than those with CAD and, lower in healthy controls than both patient groups (P = 0.004). Reward dependence was similar among both patient groups and, was higher than healthy group (P = 0.015). Depression, anxiety, somatization, obsession and interpersonal sensitivity were found to be similar in both patient groups but they were higher than those in controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, respectively). Phobia was seen equally in CAD group and healthy controls and, was found to be lower in these than in VHD (P = 0.009). Anger score was in descending order in patients with VHD, CAD and healthy controls group (P = 0.010 and 0.001). Paranoia was in descending order in patients with VHD, CAD and controls (P = 0.015 and 0.001). A weak and inverse correlation was found between ejection fraction (EF) and the persistence dimension of temperament scaled by TCI in patients with VHD (r = -0.276, P = 0.052). An inverse correlation was observed between EF and the reward dependence dimension in CAD group (r = -0.195, P = 0.044). In patients with VHD, EF demonstrated an inversely weak (r = -0.289, P = 0.042), moderate (r = -0.360, P = 0.010) and strong (r = -0.649, P < 0.001) correlation with inter-personal sensitivity, phobia and paranoia, respectively. There was an inverse and weak correlation between EF and depression and anger in VHD group (r = -0.302, P = 0.033 and r = -0.240, P = 0.054).


VHD and CAD exhibit different psychopathological symptoms and temperament traits. There is a correlation between the aforementioned psychopathological symptoms and temperament traits, and EF.


Coronary artery disease; Psychiatric symptoms; Temperament and character; Valvular

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