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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Apr;23(8):7211-9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6073-y. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

A review of neurotoxicity of microcystins.

Hu Y1,2, Chen J1, Fan H3, Xie P4, He J1.

Author information

1
Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.7 Donghu South Road, Wuhan, 430072, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
4
Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.7 Donghu South Road, Wuhan, 430072, China. xieping@ihb.ac.cn.

Abstract

Cyanobacterial blooms-produced microcystins are secondary metabolites which can accumulate in the food chain and contaminate water, thus posing a potential threat to the health of aquatic animals and even humans. Microcystin toxicity affects not only the liver but also the other organs, i.e., the brain. The serious neurotoxicity effects caused by microcystins then lead to various symptoms. This review focuses on the neurotoxicity of microcystins. Microcystins can cross blood-brain barrier with the transport of Oatps/OATPs, causing neurostructural, functional, and behavioral changes. In this review, potential uptake mechanisms and neurotoxicity mechanisms are summarized, including neurotransmissions, neurochannels, signal transduction, oxidative stress, and cytoskeleton disruption. However, further researches are needed for detailed studies on signaling pathways and the downstream pathways of neurotoxicity of microcystins.

KEYWORDS:

Brain; Mechanisms; Microcystins; Neurotoxicity; Oatps/OATPs; Toxic effects

PMID:
26857003
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-016-6073-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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