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Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Mar;34(3):626-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.12.012. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Is arterial base deficit still a useful prognostic marker in trauma? A systematic review.

Author information

1
Emergency Medicine Department, National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address: irwani_ibrahim@nuhs.edu.sg.
2
Emergency Medicine Department, National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore.
3
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore.
4
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University Health System, Singapore.
5
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore.
6
Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore; Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University Health System, Singapore.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Arterial base deficit (BD) has been widely used in trauma patients since 1960. However, trauma management has also evolved significantly in the last 2 decades. The first objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the relationship between arterial BD as a prognostic marker for trauma outcomes (mortality, significant injuries, and major complications) in the acute setting. The second objective was to evaluate arterial BD as a prognosis marker, specifically, in the elderly and in patients with positive blood alcohol levels.

METHODS:

MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1, 1990, to August 6, 2015. Bibliographies of articles were also hand searched for relevant citations.

RESULTS:

Thirty-four studies were included in this review. The studies consistently showed that a higher arterial BD was associated with increased mortality, significant injuries, and major complications. The threshold BD value of 6 mmol/L was also useful in discriminating for poorer outcomes. The presence of alcohol did not affect the ability of arterial BD to discriminate between major and minor injuries. Elderly patients had higher mortality in all arterial BD categories compared to the younger age group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite the advances in trauma care in the last 2 decades, arterial BD remains a useful prognostic marker in trauma patients, even in elderly patients and in patients who had consumed alcohol. The threshold BD value of 6 mmol/L was useful to prognosticate poorer outcomes.

PMID:
26856640
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajem.2015.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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