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Cent European J Urol. 2015;68(4):452-8. doi: 10.5173/ceju.2015.625. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes: invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes.

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Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Sciences, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.



The pathotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause different types of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The presence of a wide range of virulence genes in UPEC enables us to design appropriate DNA microarray probes. These probes, which are used in DNA microarray technology, provide us with an accurate and rapid diagnosis and definitive treatment in association with UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes. The main goal of this article is to introduce the UPEC virulence genes as invaluable approaches for designing DNA microarray probes.


Main search engines such as Google Scholar and databases like NCBI were searched to find and study several original pieces of literature, review articles, and DNA gene sequences. In parallel with in silico studies, the experiences of the authors were helpful for selecting appropriate sources and writing this review article.


There is a significant variety of virulence genes among UPEC strains. The DNA sequences of virulence genes are fabulous patterns for designing microarray probes. The location of virulence genes and their sequence lengths influence the quality of probes.


The use of selected virulence genes for designing microarray probes gives us a wide range of choices from which the best probe candidates can be chosen. DNA microarray technology provides us with an accurate, rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic method which is facilitated by designing microarray probes. Via these tools, we are able to have an accurate diagnosis and a definitive treatment regarding UTIs caused by UPEC pathotypes.


DNA microarray; microarray probe designing; uropathogenic E.coli; virulence genes

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