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Exerc Immunol Rev. 2016;22:28-41.

Salivary immunoglobulin free light chains: reference ranges and responses to exercise in young and older adults.

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Clinical Immunology Service, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
School of School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
School of School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough , UK.
English Institute of Sport/ Loughborough Performance Centre, Loughborough, UK.



Free light chains (FLCs) have a range of biological functions and may act as a broad marker of immunesuppression and activation and inflammation. Measurement of salivary FLCs may provide practical advantages in a range of clinical populations. The aim of the present study was to develop normal reference ranges of FLCs in saliva and assess the effects of acute exercise on FLC levels in younger and older adults.


Saliva FLC concentrations and secretion rates were measuredin young (n = 88, aged 18-36) and older (n = 53, aged 60-80) adults. To assess FLC changes in response to acute exercise, young adults completed a constant work-rate cycling exercise trial at 60% VO2max (n = 18) or a 1 h cycling time trial (TT) (n = 10) and older adults completed an incremental submaximal treadmill walking exercise test to 75% HRmax (n = 53). Serum FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to exercise.


Older adults demonstrated significantly higher levels of salivary FLC parameters compared with young adults. Median (5-95th percentile) concentrationswere 0.45 (0.004- 3.45) mg/L for kappa and 0.30 (0.08-1.54) mg/L for lambda in young adults; 3.91 (0.75-19.65) mg/L for kappa and 1.00 (0.02-4.50) mg/L for lambda in older ad ults. Overall median concentrations of salivary kappa and lambda FLCs were 10-fold and 20-fold lower than serum, respectively. Reductions in salivary FLC concentrations and secretion rates were observed immediately post- and at 1 h post exercise, but were only significant for the older cohort; FLCs began to recover between post and 1 h post-exercise. No changes in serum FLCs were observed in response to exercise.


Free light chains; age; exercise; saliva; serum

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