Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Apr 15;550:961-971. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.138. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Characterization of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China: uses of organic markers for supporting source apportionment.

Author information

1
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China.
2
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, United States.
3
South China of Institute of Environmental Sciences, SCIES, Guangzhou, China.
4
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address: cao@loess.llqg.ac.cn.
5
Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
6
Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China; Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland.

Abstract

Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C14-n-C40), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and hopanes were quantified in fine particulate (PM2.5), which were collected in urban area of Guangzhou, China in winter and summer in 2012/2013. The pollutants levels were well comparable with the data obtained in previous studies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region but much lower than most northern Chinese megacities. The contribution of EC to PM2.5 and OC/EC ratio suggest that the pollution sources were relatively consistent in GZ between the two seasons. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the most abundant PAHs, which were 4.9 and 1.0ng/m(3) on average, accounting for 10.7% and 9.1% to the total quantified PAHs in winter and summer, respectively. The total concentrations of PAEs ranged from 289.1 to 2435ng/m(3) and from 102.4 to 1437ng/m(3), respectively, in winter and summer. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was the most dominant PAEs. The ambient levels of PAEs could be partly attributed to the widespread uses of the household products, municipal garbage compressing, sewage, and external painting material on the building. Source apportionment for OC with chemical mass balance (CMB) model demonstrated coal combustion, vehicle emission, cooking, and secondary organic compounds (SOC) formation were the four major pollution sources. Both of the indices of n-alkanes and diagnostic PAHs ratios support that anthropogenic sources such as vehicle emission and coal combustion were the significant pollution sources with some extents from epicuticular waxes by terrestrial plants. The ratio of hopanes to EC proved the influences from vehicle emission, and displayed a certain degree of the air aging in the Guangzhou ambient air.

KEYWORDS:

Guangzhou; OC/EC; Organic markers; Phthalate esters; Source identification

PMID:
26851882
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.138
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center