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Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Apr;63:124-42. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.01.006. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Measuring wanting and liking from animals to humans: A systematic review.

Author information

1
Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory for the Study of Emotion Elicitation and Expression, Department of Psychology, FPSE, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: evapool@caltech.edu.
2
Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory for the Study of Emotion Elicitation and Expression, Department of Psychology, FPSE, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
3
Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Consumer Decision and Sustainable Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychology, FPSE, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

Animal research has shown it is possible to want a reward that is not liked once obtained. Although these findings have elicited interest, human experiments have produced contradictory results, raising doubts about the existence of separate wanting and liking influences in human reward processing. This discrepancy could be due to inconsistences in the operationalization of these concepts. We systematically reviewed the methodologies used to assess human wanting and/or liking and found that most studies operationalized these concepts in congruency with the animal literature. Nonetheless, numerous studies operationalized wanting in similar ways to those that operationalized liking. These contradictions might be driven by a major source of confound: expected pleasantness. Expected pleasantness underlies cognitive desires and does not correspond to animal liking, a hedonic experience, or to animal wanting, which relies on affective relevance, consisting of the perception of a cue associated with a relevant reward for the organism's current physiological state. Extending the concept of affective relevance and differentiating it from expected pleasantness might improve measures of human wanting and liking.

KEYWORDS:

Affective relevance; Expected pleasantness; Incentive salience; Liking; Pleasure; Wanting

PMID:
26851575
DOI:
10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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