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Life Sci. 2016 Mar 1;148:183-93. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.002. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, JayPee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201 307, UP, India. Electronic address: vibha.rani@jiit.ac.in.
2
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, 12850 E. Montview Blvd, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: Gagan.Deep@ucdenver.edu.
3
Translational Science Laboratory, College of Medicine, Florida State University, 1115 West Call St., Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300, USA. Electronic address: rakesh.singh@med.fsu.edu.
4
Department of Oncologic Sciences, USA Mitchell Cancer Institute, 1660 Spring Hill Avenue, Mobile, AL 36604, USA. Electronic address: kpalle@health.southalabama.edu.
5
Metabolic Disorder & Inflammatory Pathologies Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382030, India. Electronic address: umeshyadav@cug.ac.in.

Abstract

Increased body weight and metabolic disorder including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications together constitute metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome involves multitude of factors. A number of studies however indicate, with some conformity, that oxidative stress along with chronic inflammatory condition pave the way for the development of metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress, a state of lost balance between the oxidative and anti-oxidative systems of the cells and tissues, results in the over production of oxidative free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS generated could attack the cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids leading to cellular dysfunction including loss of energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, genetic mutations, altered cellular transport mechanisms and overall decreased biological activity, immune activation and inflammation. In addition, nutritional stress such as that caused by high fat high carbohydrate diet also promotes oxidative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonylation, and decreased antioxidant system and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. These changes lead to initiation of pathogenic milieu and development of several chronic diseases. Studies suggest that in obese person oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are the important underlying factors that lead to development of pathologies such as carcinogenesis, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through altered cellular and nuclear mechanisms, including impaired DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation. Here we discuss the aspects of metabolic disorders-induced oxidative stress in major pathological conditions and strategies for their prevention and therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant; Carcinogenesis; Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Metabolic disorders; Oxidative stress; Phytochemicals

PMID:
26851532
DOI:
10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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