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Trends Parasitol. 2016 May;32(5):356-367. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2016.01.001. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Coupled Heterogeneities and Their Impact on Parasite Transmission and Control.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: gmvazqu@emory.edu.
2
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Biological Sciences and Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
4
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Biomathematics Graduate Program and Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
5
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
6
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.
7
Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Abstract

Most host-parasite systems exhibit remarkable heterogeneity in the contribution to transmission of certain individuals, locations, host infectious states, or parasite strains. While significant advancements have been made in the understanding of the impact of transmission heterogeneity in epidemic dynamics and parasite persistence and evolution, the knowledge base of the factors contributing to transmission heterogeneity is limited. We argue that research efforts should move beyond considering the impact of single sources of heterogeneity and account for complex couplings between conditions with potential synergistic impacts on parasite transmission. Using theoretical approaches and empirical evidence from various host-parasite systems, we investigate the ecological and epidemiological significance of couplings between heterogeneities and discuss their potential role in transmission dynamics and the impact of control.

KEYWORDS:

dengue; risk heterogeneity; superspreader; transmission heterogeneity; vector-borne pathogen; within-host dynamics

PMID:
26850821
PMCID:
PMC4851872
DOI:
10.1016/j.pt.2016.01.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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