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Immunity. 2016 Feb 16;44(2):391-405. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.01.006. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-1 Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression.

Author information

  • 1KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis & HIV (K-RITH), University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), 4001 Durban, South Africa; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: henrik.kloverpris@k-rith.org.
  • 2Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.
  • 3Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 4KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis & HIV (K-RITH), University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), 4001 Durban, South Africa.
  • 5HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa.
  • 6HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK.
  • 7Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A(∗)STAR), Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), 138632 Singapore, Singapore.
  • 8Department of Surgery, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, 4058 Durban, South Africa.
  • 9ENT department Stanger Hospital, Stanger, KwaZulu Natal, 4450 Durban, South Africa.
  • 10Department of Infectious Diseases, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa; Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa - CAPRISA, 4001 Durban, South Africa.
  • 11Division of Medical Virology and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa.
  • 12Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa.
  • 13Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.
  • 14Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa - CAPRISA, 4001 Durban, South Africa; Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
  • 15Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02138, USA.
  • 16Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA.
  • 17KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis & HIV (K-RITH), University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), 4001 Durban, South Africa; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA; HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, UKZN, 4001 Durban, South Africa; Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
  • 18KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis & HIV (K-RITH), University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), 4001 Durban, South Africa; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.

Abstract

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-1 on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-1 infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed upregulation of genes associated with cell death, temporally linked with a strong IFN acute-phase response and evidence of gut barrier breakdown. We found no evidence of tissue redistribution in chronic disease and remaining circulating ILCs were activated but not apoptotic. These data provide a potential mechanistic link between acute HIV-1 infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1 infection; innate lymphoid cells

PMID:
26850658
DOI:
10.1016/j.immuni.2016.01.006
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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