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Res Vet Sci. 2016 Feb;104:77-82. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.11.011. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Author information

1
Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address: drgovind1979@gmail.com.
2
Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
3
Regional Medical Research Centre, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum 590010, Karnataka, India.
4
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address: benelli.giovanni@gmail.com.

Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

KEYWORDS:

Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicides; Filariasis; Malaria; Mosquito vectors; Plant-borne mosquitocides

PMID:
26850541
DOI:
10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.11.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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