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Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016 Mar;198:131-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.01.018. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea: leptin treatment, dietary intervention and counselling as alternatives to traditional practice - systematic review.

Author information

1
Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: kiriakidismichael@hotmail.com.
2
Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Abstract

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) is a neuroendocrine disorder caused by an energy deficit and characterized by low leptin levels. Based on this, previous studies have suggested that leptin administration may play a crucial role in FHA treatment. However, FHA is also associated with abnormal psychosocial and dietary behaviour that needs to be addressed. In this context, this systematic review examined the efficacy of leptin treatment, non-pharmacological therapy and nutritional interventions in FHA. PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library databases were searched in order to find relevant papers, including randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, prospective studies and case reports. The effects of different treatments on reproductive function, hormonal status and bone markers were recorded. Studies regarding other forms of treatment were excluded. In total, 111 papers were retrieved. After the removal of 29 duplicate papers, the abstracts and titles of 82 papers were examined. Subsequently, 53 papers were excluded based on title, and seven papers were omitted based on abstract. The remaining 11 papers were used: three based on leptin treatment, three regarding non-pharmacological treatment and five regarding dietary intervention. This literature review indicates that all of these treatment strategies improved reproductive function and hormonal status significantly, although conclusive results could not be drawn on bone markers. While leptin may be a promising new treatment, social aspects of FHA should also be addressed. As a result, a multifaceted therapeutic approach should be applied to treat affected women.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive behavioural therapy; Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea; Hypnotherapy; Leptin; Non-pharmacological treatment; Nutrition

PMID:
26849039
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.01.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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