Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
BMC Syst Biol. 2016 Feb 4;10:14. doi: 10.1186/s12918-016-0258-3.

Enhanceosome transcription factors preferentially dimerize with high mobility group proteins.

Author information

  • 1Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, Warsaw, 02-097, Poland.
  • 2Current address: Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstraße 1, Heidelberg, 69117, Germany.
  • 3Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 6, Kraków, 30-348, Poland.
  • 4Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, Warsaw, 02-097, Poland.
  • 5Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, Warsaw, 02-097, Poland.



The enhanceosome is an enhancer located upstream of the human interferon β gene, bound by transcription factor (TF) complex of extremely rigid structure. Within these rigid constraints, even a slight change of distances between transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) results in loss of functionality of the enhanceosome. We hypothesized that smaller subunits of the enhanceosome may entail TF complex formation in other regulatory regions.


In order to verify this hypothesis we systematically searched for dimerization preferences of the TFs that have TFBS in the enhanceosome. For this we utilized our recently developed tool, TACO. We performed this computational experiment in a cell-type-specific manner by utilizing cell-type-specific DNase-seq data for 105 human cell types. We also used 20 TRANSFAC motifs comprising not only the usual TFs constituting the enhanceosome but also the architectural proteins of High Mobility Group I(Y) (HMG I). A similar experiment used 42 DNase-seq data sets for mouse cell types. We found 137 statistically significant dimer predictions in the human genome, and 37 predictions in the mouse genome, that matched the positioning on the enhanceosome with ±2 bp tolerance. To characterize these predicted TF dimers, we performed functional analysis (Gene Ontology enrichment) for sets of genes which were in the neighbourhood of predicted dimer instances. A notable feature of these instances is that (1) most of them are located in introns of genes, (2) they are enriched in regulatory states, and (3) those instances that are located near transcription start sites are enriched for inclusion in computationally predicted enhancers. We also investigated similarity of dimer predictions between human and mouse.


It follows from our experiments that, except for homodimer formed by IRF proteins, the rest of the dimers were formed exclusively between one of the transcriptional activators (ATF-2/c-Jun and IRF) and a HMG I protein. NF- κB did not participate in forming dimers with other proteins. Dimers predicted in mouse were fully contained in those predicted in human, with exactly the same spacing and orientation. Intriguingly, in most of the cases the enhanceosome motifs have 1 bp wider spacing than the corresponding dimers predicted genome-wide, which is likely caused by the overall 3D structure constraints of the enhanceosome-bound complex.

[PubMed - in process]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center