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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 Mar 2;8(8):5475-83. doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b10211. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

1,8-Naphthalimide-Based Planar Small Molecular Acceptor for Organic Solar Cells.

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Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University , Beijing 100875, China.
College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Technology University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049, China.


Four small molecular acceptors (SM1-4) comprising a central benzene core, two thiophene bridges and two 1,8-naphthalimide (NI) terminal groups were designed and synthesized by direct C-H activation. SM1 has a planar chemical structure and forms H-aggregation as films. By attachment of different substituents on the central benzene ring, the dihedral angles between the two NI end groups of SM1-4 gradually increased, leading to a gradual decrease of planarity. SM1-4 all possess a high-lying LUMO level, matching with wide band gap (WBG) polymer donors which usually have a high-lying LUMO level. When used in OSCs, devices based on SM1 and WBG donor PCDTBT-C12 gave higher electron mobility, superior film morphology and better photovoltaic performance. After optimization, a PCE of 2.78% with a V(oc) of 1.04 V was achieved for SM1 based devices, which is among the highest PCEs with a V(oc) higher than 1 V. Our results have demonstrated that NI based planar small molecules are potential acceptors for WBG polymer based OSCs.


C−H activation; H-aggregation; high open circuit voltage; nonfullerene acceptor; organic solar cells; planar small molecules; wide band gap polymer


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