Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Conscious Cogn. 2016 Apr;41:24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.01.010. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, China.
2
School of Nursing, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, China. Electronic address: lyy@xxmu.edu.cn.
3
Department of Psychology, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, China; Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China. Electronic address: mengzhang.1985@163.com.
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, 100 Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610-0256, USA.

Abstract

According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition--hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female.

KEYWORDS:

Embodied emotion; Facial actions; Gender difference; Negative emotion

PMID:
26845450
DOI:
10.1016/j.concog.2016.01.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center