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Am J Med. 2016 Jun;129(6):560-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.01.013. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Biomarkers for Heart Failure: An Update for Practitioners of Internal Medicine.

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Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. Electronic address:


Biomarkers have become an integral part of practicing medicine, especially in heart failure. The natriuretic peptides are commonly used in the evaluation of heart failure, but their role extends beyond diagnosis and includes risk stratification and management of heart failure patients. Newer biomarkers have arrived and are becoming part of routine care of heart failure patients. Both ST2 and high-sensitivity troponin have significant prognostic value for mortality, but also may assist in the titration of medical therapy. Procalcitonin can help guide appropriate antibiotic use in patients with heart failure. The ability to appropriately use and interpret these biomarkers is imperative to the care of heart failure patients, especially as these newer biomarkers become widely used.


BNP; Biomarkers; Heart failure; Procalcitonin; ST2; Troponin

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