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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Apr 1;310(7):R596-601. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00512.2015. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Dive, food, and exercise effects on blood microparticles in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): exploring a biomarker for decompression sickness.

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Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Texas; Oceanografíc Research Department, C/ Eduardo Primo Yúfera 1B, Valencia, Spain
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts;
Marine Mammal Research Unit, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and.
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; and.


Recent studies of stranded marine mammals indicate that exposure to underwater military sonar may induce pathophysiological responses consistent with decompression sickness (DCS). However, DCS has been difficult to diagnose in marine mammals. We investigated whether blood microparticles (MPs, measured as number/μl plasma), which increase in response to decompression stress in terrestrial mammals, are a suitable biomarker for DCS in marine mammals. We obtained blood samples from trained Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, 4 adult females) wearing time-depth recorders that dove to predetermined depths (either 5 or 50 meters). We hypothesized that MPs would be positively related to decompression stress (depth and duration underwater). We also tested the effect of feeding and exercise in isolation on MPs using the same blood sampling protocol. We found that feeding and exercise had no effect on blood MP levels, but that diving caused MPs to increase. However, blood MP levels did not correlate with diving depth, relative time underwater, and presumed decompression stress, possibly indicating acclimation following repeated exposure to depth.


apnea; bubbles; decompression; diving; sea lion; stress

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