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Pediatr Obes. 2016 Oct;11(5):333-48. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12082. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Breakfast consumption and adiposity among children and adolescents: an updated review of the literature.

Author information

1
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, ChildObesity180, Tufts University, Boston, USA. stacy.blondin@tufts.edu.
2
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, ChildObesity180, Tufts University, Boston, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Breakfast consumption has been associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity among children, but previous evidence reviews fail to confirm a causal relationship.

OBJECTIVES:

To review recent literature on breakfast consumption and adiposity among children and discuss potential underlying mechanisms.

METHODS:

A comprehensive literature search of studies published since the 2010 US National Evidence Library review (January 2010-January 2015) was conducted.

RESULTS:

Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. All were conducted in industrialized countries: six in Europe, four in the USA, one in China and one in Australia. Ten of the studies used observational longitudinal designs, with follow-up periods ranging from 1 to 27 years (median: 3, mean: 7.4); of these, eight reported inverse associations between breakfast consumption and excess adiposity, while two found no association. The other studies (1 case-control, 1 experimental) each reported a protective effect of breakfast consumption on overweight and obesity among children.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings corroborate results from previous reviews, adding support for a possible, protective role for breakfast consumption in preventing excess adiposity during childhood and adolescence. However, drawing a causal conclusion from the collective evidence is curtailed by methodological limitations and inconsistencies, including study design, follow-up duration and frequency, exposure and outcome assessment, as well as limited consideration of confounding, mediating and effect-modifying variables. More rigorous study designs employing valid and standardized measurement of relevant variables are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Breakfast; children; obesity; overweight

PMID:
26842913
DOI:
10.1111/ijpo.12082
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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