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Physiol Rep. 2016 Feb;4(3). pii: e12685. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12685.

Assessment of left ventricular hemodynamic forces in healthy subjects and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy using 4D flow MRI.

Author information

1
Divsion of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
2
Divsion of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.
3
Divsion of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Division of Media and Information Technology, Department of Science and Technology/Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
4
Divsion of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Department of Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden carljohan.carlhall@liu.se.

Abstract

We hypothesized that the direction of global left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic forces during diastolic filling are concordant with the main flow axes in normal LVs, but that this pattern would be altered in dilated and dysfunctional LVs. Therefore, we aimed to assess the LV hemodynamic filling forces in a group of healthy subjects and compare them to the results from a group of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Ten healthy subjects and 10 DCM patients were enrolled. Morphological short- (SAx) and long-axis (LAx) images and 4D flow MRI data were acquired at 1.5T. The LV pressure gradients were computed from the 4D flow data using the Navier-Stokes equations. By integrating the pressure gradients over the LV volume at each time frame, the magnitude and direction of the global hemodynamic force was calculated over the cardiac cycle. The hemodynamic forces acting in the SAx- and LAx-directions were used to calculate the "SAx-max/LAx-max"-ratio for the early (E-wave) and late (A-wave) diastolic filling. In the LAx-plane, the temporal progression of the hemodynamic force followed a consistent pattern in the healthy subjects. The "SAx-max/LAx-max"-ratio was significantly larger at both E-wave (0.53 ± 0.15 vs. 0.23 ± 0.12, P < 0.0001) and A-wave (0.44 ± 0.21 vs. 0.26 ± 0.09, P < 0.03) in the DCM patients compared to the healthy subjects. 4D flow MRI data allow quantification of LV hemodynamic forces acting on the LV myocardial wall. The LV hemodynamic filling forces showed a similar temporal progression among healthy subjects, whereas DCM patients had forces that were more heterogeneous in their direction and magnitude during diastole.

KEYWORDS:

4D flow MRI; cardiac function; cardiac remodeling; dilated cardiomyopathy; hemodynamic forces

PMID:
26841965
PMCID:
PMC4758930
DOI:
10.14814/phy2.12685
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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