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Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2016 Feb;79(1):56-61. doi: 10.5935/0004-2749.20160018.

Vitamin A and the eye: an old tale for modern times.

Author information

1
Departamento de Oftalmologia, Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
2
Departamento de Patologia e Medicina Legal, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
3
Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
4
Departamento de Oftalmologia e Otorrinolaringologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Clinical presentations associated with vitamin A deficiency persist in poor regions globally with the same clinical features as those described centuries ago. However, new forms of vitamin A deficiency affecting the eyes, which have become widespread, as a result of modern societal habits are of increasing concern. Ophthalmic conditions related to vitamin A deficiency require the combined attention of ophthalmologists, pediatricians, internists, dermatologists, and nutritionists due to their potential severity and the diversity of causes. As the eyes and their adnexa are particularly sensitive to vitamin A deficiency and excess, ocular disturbances are often early indicators of vitamin A imbalance. The present review describes the clinical manifestations of hypovitaminosis A with an emphasis on so-called modern dietary disorders and multidisciplinary treatment approaches. The present review also discusses the relationship between retinoic acid therapy and dry eye disease.

PMID:
26840172
DOI:
10.5935/0004-2749.20160018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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