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J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;50(3):765-78. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150705.

Predictive Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Visinin-Like Protein-1 Levels for Alzheimer's Disease Early Detection and Differential Diagnosis in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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Department of Neuroscience, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.
Department for Functional Genomics, Center for Translational and Clinical Research, University of Zagreb Medical School, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
General Hospital Vinkovci, Vinkovci, Croatia.
Fishberg Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.


Visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) recently emerged as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This neuronal calcium sensor protein previously used as a marker of acute ischemic stroke is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. The goal of this study was to assess CSF VILIP-1 potential in early AD diagnosis and in differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with and without risk of AD. Additionally, we tested VILIP-1 ability to differentiate AD from other primary causes of dementia, and predict the progression of AD-related cognitive decline. VILIP-1 levels were compared with five CSF AD biomarkers (t-tau, Aβ1-42, p-tau181, p-tau199, and p-tau231). VILIP-1 successfully differentiated two MCI patient groups characterized by absence or presence of pathological levels of these CSF biomarkers, except for t-tau. VILIP-1/Aβ(1-42) and VILIP-1/p-tau181 ratios also differentiated MCI patients with pathological CSF biomarker levels. However, there was no difference in VILIP-1 levels between AD and MCI patients. VILIP-1/Aβ(1-42) and VILIP-1/p-tau231 ratios reached high sensitivities (above 70%) and very high specificities (above 85%) in differentiating AD patients from HC. Additionally, VILIP-1 differentiated AD from patients with Lewy body disease with 77.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity. VILIP-1 potential as a prognostic biomarker of cognitive decline in AD was also proved since VILIP-1/t-tau, VILIP-1/p-tau181, and VILIP-1/p-tau231 ratios correlated with MMSE scores. These data indicate that VILIP-1 alone or in combination with other AD CSF biomarkers represent a valuable marker for the early diagnosis of AD, recognition of MCI patients at higher risk to develop dementia, and in differentiating AD from LBD.


Alzheimer’s disease; biomarker; cerebrospinal fluid; dementia; early diagnosis; mild cognitive impairment; visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1)

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