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Eat Behav. 2016 Apr;21:123-8. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.01.005. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

Author information

1
Centro de Psicología Económica y del Consumo, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile; Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address: l.orellana@sheffield.ac.uk.
2
MAPP Centre for Research on Customer Relations in the Food Sector, Aarhus University, Denmark. Electronic address: klg@badm.au.dk.
3
Centro de Psicología Económica y del Consumo, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile; Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Electronic address: j.sepulveda@sheffield.ac.uk.
4
Escuela de Ingeniería Comercial, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile. Electronic address: globos@utalca.cl.
5
Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Educación, Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Electronic address: marianela.denegri@ufrontera.cl.
6
Departamento de Producción Agropecuaria, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Electronic address: horacio.miranda@ufrontera.cl.
7
Departamento de Economía y Administración, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Económicas, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile. Electronic address: cadasme@ucm.cl.
8
Departamento de Economía Agraria, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: mmorag@uchile.cl.
9
Departamento de Administración, Facultad de Negocios, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address: setchebarne@unegocios.cl.
10
Centro de Psicología Económica y del Consumo, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Electronic address: natalia.salinas@ufrontera.cl.
11
Departamento de Producción Agropecuaria, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Electronic address: berta.schnettler@ufrontera.cl.

Abstract

Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

KEYWORDS:

dietary restriction; masculinity; satisfaction with life; subjective well-being; university students

PMID:
26835591
DOI:
10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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