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Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2014 Aug;3(2):123-8. doi: 10.15420/aer.2014.3.2.123. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Remote Monitoring for Follow-up of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

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Department of Cardiology, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy.
Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, US.


Follow-up of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices is challenging due to the increasing number and technical complexity of devices coupled to increasing clinical complexity of patients. Remote monitoring (RM) offers the opportunity to optimise clinic workflow and to improve device monitoring and patient management. Several randomised clinical trials and registries have demonstrated that RM may reduce number of hospital visits, time required for patient follow-up, physician and nurse time, hospital and social costs. Furthermore, patient retention and adherence to follow-up schedule are significantly improved by RM. Continuous wireless monitoring of data stored in the device memory with automatic alerts allows early detection of device malfunctions and of events requiring clinical reaction, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure. Early reaction may improve patient outcome. RM is easy to use and patients showed a high level of acceptance and satisfaction. Implementing RM in daily practice may require changes in clinic workflow. To this purpose, new organisational models have been introduced. In spite of a favourable cost:benefit ratio, RM reimbursement still represents an issue in several European countries.


Cardiac implantable electronic devices; atrial fibrillation; follow-up; heart failure; implantable cardioverter defibrillator; recall management; remote monitoring; ventricular arrhythmias

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