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J Hum Kinet. 2015 Jan 12;48:33-41. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2015-0089. eCollection 2015 Nov 22.

Kinetic and Kinematic Differences in a Golf Swing in One and Both Lower Limb Amputees.

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Palacky University in Olomouc, Faculty of Physical Culture, Tr. Miru 115, post. 771 11 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
Department of Theory and Practice of Sport; The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice; Poland.
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Laboratory of Extreme Loading.
Department of Physiology, Institute of Sport, Warsaw Poland.
Faculty of Physical Education and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Poland.


Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing "mistakes" in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless.


O factor; S factor; X factor; disability; golf swing; handicap; lower limb amputee

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