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Curr Biol. 2016 Feb 22;26(4):439-49. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.047. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Rules and Self-Organizing Properties of Post-embryonic Plant Organ Cell Division Patterns.

Author information

1
Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe Universit├Ąt Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
2
Center for Organismal Studies, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
3
Department of Comparative Development and Genetics, Max Planck Institute of Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany.
4
Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
5
Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe Universit├Ąt Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address: ernst.stelzer@physikalischebiologie.de.
6
Center for Organismal Studies, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: alexis.maizel@cos.uni-heidelberg.de.

Abstract

Plants form new organs with patterned tissue organization throughout their lifespan. It is unknown whether this robust post-embryonic organ formation results from stereotypic dynamic processes, in which the arrangement of cells follows rigid rules. Here, we combine modeling with empirical observations of whole-organ development to identify the principles governing lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. Lateral roots derive from a small pool of founder cells in which some take a dominant role as seen by lineage tracing. The first division of the founders is asymmetric, tightly regulated, and determines the formation of a layered structure. Whereas the pattern of subsequent cell divisions is not stereotypic between different samples, it is characterized by a regular switch in division plane orientation. This switch is also necessary for the appearance of patterned layers as a result of the apical growth of the primordium. Our data suggest that lateral root morphogenesis is based on a limited set of rules. They determine cell growth and division orientation. The organ-level coupling of the cell behavior ensures the emergence of the lateral root's characteristic features. We propose that self-organizing, non-deterministic modes of development account for the robustness of plant organ morphogenesis.

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PMID:
26832441
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.047
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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