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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 16;113(7):E894-901. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1525674113. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

miR-H28 and miR-H29 expressed late in productive infection are exported and restrict HSV-1 replication and spread in recipient cells.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Institute of Immunology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China;
2
The Marjorie B. Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637.
3
The Marjorie B. Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 bernard.roizman@bsd.uchicago.edu zhoug@siitm.org.cn.
4
State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Institute of Immunology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China; bernard.roizman@bsd.uchicago.edu zhoug@siitm.org.cn.

Abstract

We report on the properties and function of two herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) microRNAs (miRNAs) designated "miR-H28" and "miR-H29." Both miRNAs accumulate late in productive infection at a time when, for the most part, viral DNA and proteins have been made. Ectopic expression of miRNA mimics in human cells before infection reduced the accumulation of viral mRNAs and proteins, reduced plaque sizes, and at vey low multiplicities of infection reduced viral yields. The specificity of the miRNA mimics was tested in two ways. First, ectopic expression of mimics carrying mutations in the seed sequence was ineffective. Second, in similar tests two viral miRNAs made early in productive infection also had no effect. Both miR-H28 and miR-H29 are exported from infected cells in exosomes. A noteworthy finding is that both miR-H28 and miR-H29 were absent from murine ganglia harboring latent virus but accumulated in ganglia in which the virus was induced to reactivate. The significance of these findings rests on the principle that the transmission of HSV from person to person is by physical contact between the infected tissues of the donor and those of uninfected recipient. Diminished size of primary or recurrent lesions could be predicted to enhance person-to-person transmission. Reduction in the amount of reactivating latent virus would reduce the risk of retrograde transport to the CNS but would not interfere with anterograde transport to a site at or near the site of initial infection.

KEYWORDS:

exosome; latency; reactivation; trigeminal ganglia

PMID:
26831114
PMCID:
PMC4763765
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1525674113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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