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J Dairy Sci. 2016 Jun;99(6):4967-4982. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10354. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

Author information

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824. Electronic address: sordillo@msu.edu.

Abstract

Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows.

KEYWORDS:

dairy cow; immunity; inflammation; metabolic stress

PMID:
26830740
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2015-10354
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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