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Trends Parasitol. 2016 May;32(5):368-377. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

All For One and One For All on the Tick-Host Battlefield.

Author information

1
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Budweis, Czech Republic.
2
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Budweis, Czech Republic; Institute of Parasitology, Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences, Budweis, Czech Republic.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
4
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences, Budweis, Czech Republic. Electronic address: mich_kotsyfakis@yahoo.com.

Abstract

The saliva of ixodid ticks contains a mixture of bioactive molecules that target a wide spectrum of host defense mechanisms to allow ticks to feed on the vertebrate host for several days. Tick salivary proteins cluster in multigenic protein families, and individual family members display redundancy and pluripotency in their action to ameliorate or evade host immune responses. It is now clear that members of different protein families can target the same cellular or molecular pathway of the host physiological response to tick feeding. We present and discuss our hypothesis that redundancy and pluripotency evolved in tick salivary immunomodulators to evade immune recognition by the host while retaining the immunomodulatory potential of their saliva.

KEYWORDS:

immunomodulation; multigenic protein families; pluripotency; redundancy; silent antigens; tick salivary proteins

PMID:
26830726
PMCID:
PMC4851932
DOI:
10.1016/j.pt.2016.01.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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