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Food Chem. 2016 Jun 1;200:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.092. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Plant polyphenols to enhance the nutritional and sensory properties of chocolates.

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Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Singapore, Singapore.
Crystallisation and Particle Science, Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, A∗STAR, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833, Singapore.
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:


A relatively unexplored method to enhance the sensory and nutritional properties of chocolate is to use plant polyphenols. In this study, a low cost agricultural waste product - mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp - was added as powder in graded amounts (1%, 2% and 3%w/w) to dark and compound chocolates during the mixing stage and evaluated. The particle size distributions of the chocolates were mostly within 30 μm and the chocolates displayed a homogeneous morphology. The polyphenols (procyanidins and xanthones) in mangosteen pericarp powder were also stable to simulated chocolate processing. The 3% pericarp powder concentration significantly expanded the bioactive profile and total phenolic content (13% in dark chocolates and 50% in compound chocolates) compared to their plain counterparts without affecting sensory qualities. Such low cost plant polyphenols could enhance the bioactive and flavor profile of chocolates, especially in low cocoa content compound chocolates.


Compound chocolates; Mangosteen pericarp; Plant polyphenols; Xanthones

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