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J Sch Health. 2016 Mar;86(3):195-203. doi: 10.1111/josh.12370.

Emotional Arousal and Regulation: Further Evidence of the Validity of the "How I Feel" Questionnaire for Use With School-Age Children.

Author information

1
Department of Education and Psychology, University of Florence, Via di San Salvi, 12 Complesso di San Salvi Padiglione 26, 50135 Florence, Italy. enrica.ciucci@unifi.it.
2
Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Via di San Salvi, 12 Complesso di San Salvi Padiglione 26, 50135 Florence, Italy. a.baroncelli@unifi.it.
3
Department of Human Sciences 'R. Massa', University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1, 20126 Milan, Italy. ilaria.grazzani@unimib.it.
4
Department of Human Sciences 'R. Massa', University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1, 20126 Milan, Italy. veronica.ornaghi1@unimib.it.
5
Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1, 20126, Milan, Italy. claudia.caprin@unimib.it.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The ability to understand and manage emotional experience is critical to children's health. This study confirmed the validity of the How I Feel (HIF) Questionnaire, a measure of children's emotional arousal and regulation, exploring its associations with measures of emotional and social functioning.

METHODS:

The sample was comprised of 1379 Italian students (aged 8 to 12 years) who attended schools interested in the study aims. Participants completed the 30-item HIF scale, and measures of emotional self-efficacy and social desirability (SD). Factor structures were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Invariance by age and gender, internal consistency, temporal stability, and concurrent validity were also tested.

RESULTS:

A 3-factor model was identified: frequency and intensity of (1) positive emotion--PE (8 items, α = .82), (2) negative emotion--NE (12 items, α = .86), and (3) positive and negative emotion control--EC (10 items, α = .77). This factor structure was invariant across age and gender groups. The HIF displayed moderate longitudinal stability over a 15-month period and a low social desirability effect. Positive emotion was positively associated with social acceptance and visibility, and negatively with social withdrawal.

CONCLUSIONS:

The HIF is a reliable and valid measure for research and school intervention promoting students' emotional and mental health.

KEYWORDS:

child and adolescent health; emotional health; instruments; youth social functioning

PMID:
26830506
DOI:
10.1111/josh.12370
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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