Send to

Choose Destination
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016 Feb 1;10(2):282-94. doi: 10.1177/1932296816629491.

Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening.

Author information

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore.
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore


Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources.


diabetic retinopathy; imaging; retina; screening

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center