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Nat Genet. 2016 Mar;48(3):299-307. doi: 10.1038/ng.3495. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

The genomic basis of parasitism in the Strongyloides clade of nematodes.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
2
Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Division of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.
4
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.
5
Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
6
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.
7
Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
8
Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health and School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
9
Department of Molecular Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.
10
Unidad de Secuenciación Masiva y Bioinformática, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
11
Department of Intergrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
12
Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
13
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
14
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Keele, Keele, UK.

Abstract

Soil-transmitted nematodes, including the Strongyloides genus, cause one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides species, including the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp. KR3021). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families--families encoding astacin-like and SCP/TAPS proteins--is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle, we compare the transcriptomes of the parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same gene families are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism.

PMID:
26829753
PMCID:
PMC4948059
DOI:
10.1038/ng.3495
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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