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Neuropediatrics. 2016 Apr;47(2):84-96. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1570492. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Tic Disorders and Tourette Syndrome: Current Concepts of Etiology and Treatment in Children and Adolescents.

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1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Tic disorders (TD), including chronic/persistent TD (CTD) and Tourette syndrome, have been described and studied for many years. Within the last two decades, intensified study efforts led to more specific assumptions about genesis and influences of both hereditary and environmental factors. TD in children and adolescents are very often accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) as comorbid disorders. Comorbidities are aggravating factors concerning prognosis and treatment opportunities. Therefore, etiological considerations and treatment strategies have to take associated psychiatric disorders into account. Treatment approaches are symptom targeted and include behavioral treatments and/or medication and show positive outcomes concerning tic symptomatology, global functioning, and associated psychopathology. This review presents an update of the research, definitions, and classification according to ICD-10 and DSM-5 and summarizes the diagnostic procedures and most effective clinical strategies.

PMID:
26829367
DOI:
10.1055/s-0035-1570492
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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