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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7239639. doi: 10.1155/2016/7239639. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Exercise Modulates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3.


Despite the wealth of epidemiological and experimental studies indicating the protective role of regular physical activity/exercise training against the sequels of aging and cardiovascular diseases, the molecular transducers of exercise/physical activity benefits are not fully identified but should be further investigated in more integrative and innovative approaches, as they bear the potential for transformative discoveries of novel therapeutic targets. As aging and cardiovascular diseases are associated with a chronic state of oxidative stress and inflammation mediated via complex and interconnected pathways, we will focus in this review on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of exercise, mainly exerted on adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, immune system, and cardiovascular system by modulating anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokines profile, redox-sensitive transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes, and repair proteins such as heat shock proteins, proteasome complex, oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, uracil DNA glycosylase, and telomerase. It is important to note that the effects of exercise vary depending on the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise as well as on the individual's characteristics; therefore, the development of personalized exercise programs is essential.

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