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Nat Commun. 2016 Jan 29;7:10311. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10311.

A Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector targets plant PP1c isoforms that promote late blight disease.

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Department of Cell and Molecular Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Errol Road, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK.
Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Science, University of Dundee (at JHI), Errol Road, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK.
Virus-free Seedling Research Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 368 Xuefu Road, Harbin 150086, China.
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (at HAU), Ministry of Education, National Center for Vegetable Improvement (Central China), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.


Plant pathogens deliver effectors to alter host processes. Knowledge of how effectors target and manipulate host proteins is critical to understand crop disease. Here, we show that in planta expression of the RXLR effector Pi04314 enhances leaf colonization by Phytophthora infestans via activity in the host nucleus and attenuates induction of jasmonic and salicylic acid-responsive genes. Pi04314 interacts with three host protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PP1c) isoforms, causing their re-localization from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Re-localization of PP1c-1 also occurs during infection and is dependent on an R/KVxF motif in the effector. Silencing the PP1c isoforms or overexpression of a phosphatase-dead PP1c-1 mutant attenuates infection, demonstrating that host PP1c activity is required for disease. Moreover, expression of PP1c-1mut abolishes enhanced leaf colonization mediated by in planta Pi04314 expression. We argue that PP1c isoforms are susceptibility factors forming holoenzymes with Pi04314 to promote late blight disease.

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