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J Infect. 2016 Apr;72(4):478-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Altered interferon-γ response in patients with Q-fever fatigue syndrome.

Author information

1
Radboud Expertise Centre for Q Fever, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Stephan.Keijmel@radboudumc.nl.
2
Radboud Expertise Centre for Q Fever, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Ruud.Raijmakers@radboudumc.nl.
3
Radboud Expertise Centre for Q Fever, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Chantal.Bleeker-Rovers@radboudumc.nl.
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Jos.vanderMeer@radboudumc.nl.
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Mihai.Netea@radboudumc.nl.
6
Radboud Expertise Centre for Q Fever, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Teske.Schoffelen@radboudumc.nl.
7
Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Marcel.vanDeuren@radboudumc.nl.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Whether immunological mechanisms underlie Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) remains unclear. For acute Q-fever, the antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFNγ) response may be a useful tool for diagnosis, and the IFNγ/interleukin(IL)-2 production ratio may be a marker for chronic Q-fever and treatment monitoring. Here we explored the specific IFNγ production and IFNγ/IL-2 ratio in QFS patients.

METHODS:

IFNγ and IL-2 production were tested in ex-vivo stimulated whole blood of QFS patients (n = 20), and compared to those previously determined in seropositive controls (n = 135), and chronic Q-fever patients (n = 28). Also, the correlation between patient characteristics and IFNγ, IL-2, and IFNγ/IL-2 ratio was determined.

RESULTS:

QFS patients were younger (p < 0.001), but gender distribution was similar to seropositive controls and chronic Q-fever patients. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile stimulation revealed a higher IFNγ production in QFS (median 319.5 pg/ml) than in seropositive controls (120 pg/ml, p < 0.01), but comparable to chronic Q-fever (2846 pg/ml). The IFNγ/IL-2 ratio was similar to that in seropositive controls, but lower than in chronic Q-fever patients (p < 0.01). Symptom duration was positively correlated with IL-2 production, and negatively correlated with the IFNγ/IL-2 ratio.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results point to an altered cell-mediated immunity in QFS, and suggest a different immune response than in chronic Q-fever.

KEYWORDS:

Cell-mediated immunity; Coxiella burnetii; Cytokines; Diagnosis; IFNγ; Interferon-gamma; Q-fever; Q-fever fatigue syndrome; QFS

PMID:
26820634
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinf.2016.01.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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