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Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:471719. doi: 10.1155/2015/471719. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Clinical Use of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells-Harmonization Approach in European Collaborative Effort.

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Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Blood Supply, Division of Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE2 4HH, UK.
Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium.
Division of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, 93053 Bavaria, Germany.
Division of Transplantation Immunology & Mucosal Biology, MRC Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK.
School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE2 4HH, UK.
Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité University Medicine, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
Department of Clinical Immunology and Transplantology, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki 7, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland.
Immunology Division, Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital, Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Campus Can Ruti, 08916 Barcelona, Spain.


The number of patients with autoimmune diseases and severe allergies and recipients of transplants increases worldwide. Currently, these patients require lifelong administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Often, these drugs are expensive and show immediate or late-occurring severe side effects. Treatment would be greatly improved by targeting the cause of autoimmunity, that is, loss of tolerance to self-antigens. Accumulating knowledge on immune mechanisms has led to the development of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC), with the specific objective to restrain unwanted immune reactions in the long term. The first clinical trials with tolDC have recently been conducted and more tolDC trials are underway. Although the safety trials have been encouraging, many questions relating to tolDC, for example, cell-manufacturing protocols, administration route, amount and frequency, or mechanism of action, remain to be answered. Aiming to join efforts in translating tolDC and other tolerogenic cellular products (e.g., Tregs and macrophages) to the clinic, a European COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) network has been initiated-A FACTT (action to focus and accelerate cell-based tolerance-inducing therapies). A FACTT aims to minimize overlap and maximize comparison of tolDC approaches through establishment of minimum information models and consensus monitoring parameters, ensuring that progress will be in an efficient, safe, and cost-effective way.

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