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Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):509-514. doi: 10.1038/nature16521.

Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis.

Gao W#1,2,3, Emaminejad S#1,2,3,4, Nyein HYY1,2,3, Challa S4, Chen K1,2,3, Peck A5, Fahad HM1,2,3, Ota H1,2,3, Shiraki H1,2,3, Kiriya D1,2,3, Lien DH1,2,3, Brooks GA5, Davis RW4, Javey A1,2,3.

Author information

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.
Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Contributed equally


Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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