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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Feb;137(2):438-48. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000475754.71333.f6.

Full Facial Feminization Surgery: Patient Satisfaction Assessment Based on 180 Procedures Involving 33 Consecutive Patients.

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Florence and Parma, Italy From the Department of Maxillo Facial Surgery, University of Florence; and the Face Surgery Center.



Gender dysphoria refers to the discomfort and distress that arise from a discrepancy between a person's gender identity and sex assigned at birth. The treatment plan for gender dysphoria varies and can include psychotherapy, hormone treatment, and gender reassignment surgery, which is, in part, an irreversible change of sexual identity. Procedures for transformation to the female sex include facial feminization surgery, vaginoplasty, clitoroplasty, and breast augmentation. Facial feminization surgery can include forehead remodeling, rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, thyroid chondroplasty, and voice alteration procedures. Described here is an assessment of patient satisfaction after facial feminization surgery, including outcome measurements after forehead slippage and chin remodeling.


Thirty-three patients between 19 and 40 years of age were referred for facial feminization surgery between January of 2003 and December of 2013, for a total of 180 procedures. Surgical outcome was analyzed both subjectively through questionnaires administered to patients and objectively by serial photographs.


Most facial feminization surgery procedures can be safely completed in 6 months, barring complications. All patients showed excellent cosmetic results and were satisfied with their procedures. Both frontal and profile views achieved a loss of masculine features.


Patient satisfaction after facial feminization surgery is high. The reduction of gender dysphoria has psychological and social benefits and significantly affects patient outcome.


Therapeutic, IV.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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