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Diabetologia. 2016 Apr;59(4):719-27. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3860-9. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Association between sleeping difficulty and type 2 diabetes in women.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sleep Disorders Clinical Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.
7
Harvard Catalyst | Clinical and Translational Science Center, Boston, MA, USA.
8
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
9
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
10
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. nhbfh@channing.harvard.edu.
11
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. nhbfh@channing.harvard.edu.
12
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. nhbfh@channing.harvard.edu.

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

Sleeping difficulty has been associated with type 2 diabetes in some prior studies. Whether the observed associations are independent of health behaviours, other cardiovascular risk factors or other sleep disorders is unclear.

METHODS:

We analysed data from 133,353 women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 2000-2010) and the NHSII (2001-2011). Sleeping difficulty was assessed as having difficulty falling or staying asleep 'all of the time' or 'most of the time' at baseline (2000 in NHS and 2001 in NHSII).

RESULTS:

We documented 6,407 incident cases of type 2 diabetes during up to 10 years of follow-up. After adjustment for lifestyle factors at baseline, comparing women with and without sleeping difficulty, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes was 1.45 (95% CI 1.33, 1.58), which changed to 1.22 (95% CI 1.12, 1.34) after further adjustment for hypertension, depression and BMI based on the updated repeated measurements. Women who reported all four sleep conditions (sleeping difficulty, frequent snoring, sleep duration ≤6 h and sleep apnoea in NHS or rotating shift work in NHSII) had more than a fourfold increased likelihood of type 2 diabetes (HR 4.17, 95% CI 2.93, 5.91).

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

Sleeping difficulty was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. This association was partially explained by associations with hypertension, BMI and depression symptoms, and was particularly strong when combined with other sleep disorders. Our findings highlight the importance of sleep disturbance in the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Pathways; Sleeping difficulty

PMID:
26818148
PMCID:
PMC5282928
DOI:
10.1007/s00125-015-3860-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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