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Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270). pii: aad5872. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5872. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Viral immunity. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu.
2
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu.

Abstract

Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.

PMID:
26816384
PMCID:
PMC4751997
DOI:
10.1126/science.aad5872
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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