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Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 May;28(5):758-64. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12772. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Evaluation of the pylorus with concurrent intraluminal pressure and EndoFLIP in patients with nausea and vomiting.

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Neurogastroenterology and Motility, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.



Nausea and vomiting occurs in gastroparesis due to diabetes mellitus or unknown causes. The aim of this study was to compare (i) pyloric distensibility to pyloric manometric pressure in patients with nausea and vomiting and (ii) to correlate distensibility with delays in gastric emptying.


Sleeve manometry and EndoFLIP were performed sequentially during the same endoscopy on 114 patients with nausea and vomiting (47 with diabetes mellitus and 67 with idiopathic cause) after a standardized gastric emptying study. The sleeve manometer was positioned fluoroscopically, and the EndoFLIP was placed endoscopically. Manometric pressure using a water-perfused catheter and distensibility using an EndoFLIP filled with 40 cc of saline were measured from the pylorus.


The basal pyloric pressure was elevated (>10 mmHg) in 34 patients and was normal in 80 patients. The basal and peak pressures were similar in patient with normal and delayed gastric emptying (p > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in distensibility (8.0 ± 1.0 mm(2) /mmHg) in patients with gastric retention (>20% at 4 h) compared with patients (12.4 ± 1.4 mm(2) /mmHg) (p < 0.01) with normal gastric retention (<10%). Pressure measurements from the sleeve manometer and the EndoFLIP correlated (r = 0.29) (p < 0.002), and increased EndoFLIP balloon pressure (19.4 ± 1.4 mmHg) (p < 0.01) was associated with a severe delay in gastric emptying.


Elevated basal pyloric pressure occurs in 42% of patients with nausea and vomiting and delayed emptying. Decreased pyloric distensibility occurs with nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. The EndoFLIP is a useful tool in the evaluation of pyloric function in symptomatic patients.


endoFLIP; gastric emptying; gastroparesis; pylorus; sleeve manometer

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