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Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016 Mar;99:308-23. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2016.01.002. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: A review of the evidence.

Author information

1
Sorbonne Paris Cité Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre (CRESS), Inserm U1153, Inra U1125, Cnam, Paris 13 University, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Bobigny, France; French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1). Electronic address: paule.martel@jouy.inra.fr.
2
French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1); University Hospital of Dijon, Inserm U866, Digestive Cancer Registry of Burgundy, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
3
Sorbonne Paris Cité Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre (CRESS), Inserm U1153, Inra U1125, Cnam, Paris 13 University, Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN), Bobigny, France; French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1).
4
French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1); UMR 1331 Toxalim, Inra, INP, UPS, Team 9 "Prevention, Promotion of Carcinogenesis by Food", Toulouse, France.
5
French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1); Cancer and Environment Department, Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre, Lyon, France.
6
French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network), France(1); Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, UFR Pharmacie; Inra, UMR 1019, CRNH Auvergne; Centre Jean-Perrin, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Unité de Nutrition, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
7
French National Cancer Institute, Department of Prevention, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Prevention is a priority in the fight against cancers, especially nutritional prevention. To update the levels of evidence of relationships between 10 nutritional factors and cancer risk, the scientific literature published from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed by an expert group.

METHODS:

Data from 133 meta-analyses, pooled analyses or intervention trials were examined. Nearly 150 relationships between nutritional factors and cancer at various sites were evaluated.

RESULTS:

According to the evidence graded as convincing or probable, these factors were divided in two groups. Factors which increase the risk of cancer are alcoholic beverages, overweight and obesity, red meat and processed meat, salt and salted foods and beta-carotene supplements. Factors which decrease the risk of cancer are physical activity, fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber, dairy products and breastfeeding.

CONCLUSION:

Three main nutritional objectives should be attained to improve cancer prevention: to reduce alcoholic beverages consumption, to have a balanced and diversified diet and to be physically active.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Beta-carotene supplements; Breastfeeding; Cancer; Diet; Obesity; Physical activity; Prevention

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