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Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2016;137:87-121. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

S-Glutathionylation and Redox Protein Signaling in Drug Addiction.

Author information

1
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
2
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Electronic address: uys@musc.edu.

Abstract

Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that comes at a high cost to individuals and society. Therefore understanding the mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects is of prime importance. Drugs of abuse increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species resulting in oxidative stress. This change in redox homeostasis increases the conjugation of glutathione to protein cysteine residues; a process called S-glutathionylation. Although traditionally regarded as a protective mechanism against irreversible protein oxidation, accumulated evidence suggests a more nuanced role for S-glutathionylation, namely as a mediator in redox-sensitive protein signaling. The reversible modification of protein thiols leading to alteration in function under different physiologic/pathologic conditions provides a mechanism whereby change in redox status can be translated into a functional response. As such, S-glutathionylation represents an understudied means of post-translational protein modification that may be important in the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. This review will discuss the evidence for S-glutathionylation as a redox-sensing mechanism and how this may be involved in the response to drug-induced oxidative stress. The function of S-glutathionylated proteins involved in neurotransmission, dendritic spine structure, and drug-induced behavioral outputs will be reviewed with specific reference to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin.

KEYWORDS:

S-glutathionylation; addiction; alcohol; cocaine; heroin; posttranslational modification; redox; redox signaling

PMID:
26809999
PMCID:
PMC4881420
DOI:
10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.10.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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