Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 25;16:24. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1356-y.

Genital Epstein Barr Virus is associated with higher prevalence and persistence of anal human papillomavirus in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.

Author information

University of California San Diego, 500 Gilman Drive MC 0679, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0679, USA.
North Shore-LIJ Health System, Lake Success, NY, USA.
Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA.
Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1300 N. Mission Road, Suite 349, Los Angeles, CA 91106, CA, USA.
University of California San Diego, 500 Gilman Drive MC 0679, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0679, USA.
University of California San Diego, 200 Arbor Dr., Mail code 8208, San Diego, CA, 92103, USA.



Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) can co-exist in pharyngeal and cervical malignancies. However, the natural history and factors associated with persistent HPV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are unclear.


131 HIV-infected MSM were followed for 48 weeks and screened for multiple co-infections, including seminal EBV DNA and high risk (HR)-HPV messenger RNA (mRNA) at several sites (semen, anal, pharynx). Primary analysis tested if seminal EBV shedding was associated with increased prevalence of HR-HPV at baseline using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we tested if presence of seminal EBV shedding at baseline was also predictive of reduced HR-HPV clearance by log-rank test (over 48 weeks of follow-up).


Baseline prevalence of HR-HPV was: anal 44% (N = 54/121); pharynx 3.8% (N = 5/131); semen 7.1% (N = 7/98). Seminal EBV shedding was present in 28% of participants and was associated with more than double the prevalence of detectable anal HR-HPV mRNA (71.4% for EBV shedders versus 33.3% for non-shedders, p < 0.01). In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we found increased persistence of HR-HPV over 48 weeks of follow-up (measured as time to first negative HR-HPV test in the EBV shedding group (p < 0.01).


Seminal EBV shedding was associated with an increased risk of having detectable anal HR-HPV in a cohort of HIV-infected MSM on suppressive ART. Future studies should examine if co-infection with EBV and HR-HPV may act synergistically in pathogenesis of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substance, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center