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J Dent. 2016 Mar;46:42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2016.01.007. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Relationship between enamel fluorosis severity and fluoride content.

Author information

1
Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis IN 46236, USA. Electronic address: esmartin@iu.edu.
2
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
3
Oral Health Research Institute, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
4
Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis IN 46236, USA.
5
Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis IN 46236, USA; Oral Health Research Institute, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 415 Lansing Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Enamel fluorosis is a hypomineralization caused by chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride during tooth development. Previous research on the relationship between enamel fluoride content and fluorosis severity has been equivocal. The current study aimed at comparing visually and histologically assessed fluorosis severity with enamel fluoride content.

METHODS:

Extracted teeth (n=112) were visually examined using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index for fluorosis. Eruption status of each tooth was noted. Teeth were cut into 100 μm slices to assess histological changes with polarized light microscopy. Teeth were categorized as sound, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis, visually and histologically. They were cut into squares (2 × 2 mm) for the determination of fluoride content (microbiopsy) at depths of 30, 60 and 90 μm from the external surface.

RESULTS:

Erupted teeth with severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content at 30, 60 and 90 μm than sound teeth. Unerupted teeth with mild, moderate and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 30 μm; unerupted teeth with mild and severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 60 μm, while only unerupted teeth severe fluorosis had significantly greater mean fluoride content than sound teeth at 90 μm.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both erupted and unerupted severely fluorosed teeth presented higher mean enamel fluoride content than sound teeth.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Data on fluoride content in enamel will further our understanding of its biological characteristics which play a role in the management of hard tissue diseases and conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Dental Enamel; Enamel fluorosis; Fluoride

PMID:
26808157
PMCID:
PMC4767679
[Available on 2017-03-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdent.2016.01.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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