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Methods. 2016 Jul 15;104:127-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.01.011. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Small molecule MALDI MS imaging: Current technologies and future challenges.

Author information

1
Lysosomal Diseases Research Unit, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
2
Lysosomal Diseases Research Unit, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address: marten.snel@sahmri.com.

Abstract

Imaging of specific small molecules is particularly challenging using conventional optical microscopy techniques. This has led to the development of alternative imaging modalities, including mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods. This review aims to provide an overview of the technologies, methods and future directions of laser-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of small molecules. In particular it will focus on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as the ion source, although other laser mass spectrometry methods will also be discussed to provide context, both historical and current. Small molecule MALDI MSI has been performed on a wide variety of instrument platforms: these are reviewed, as are the laser systems that are commonly used in this technique. Instrumentation and methodology cross over in the areas of achieving optimal spatial resolution, a key parameter in obtaining meaningful data. Also discussed is sample preparation, which is pivotal in maintaining sample integrity, providing a true reflection of the distribution of analytes, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Like all developing analytical techniques there are challenges to be overcome. Two of these are dealing with sample complexity and obtaining quantitative information from an imaging experiment. Both of these topics are addressed. Finally, novel experiments including non-MALDI laser ionization techniques are highlighted and a future perspective on the role of MALDI MSI in the small molecule arena is provided.

KEYWORDS:

Imaging; MALDI; Mass spectrometry; Review; Small molecules

PMID:
26804564
DOI:
10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.01.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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