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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;905:17-23. doi: 10.1007/5584_2015_185.

Incidence and Clinical Course of Respiratory Viral Coinfections in Children Aged 0-59 Months.

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Department of Family Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, 1A Banacha St., 02-097, Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Pediatrics with Medical Assessment Unit, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Family Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, 1A Banacha St., 02-097, Warsaw, Poland.
National Influenza Center, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.


Clinical data available on coinfections are contradictory concerning both the number of viruses involved and the severity of the condition. A total of 114 patients aged 0-59 months with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were enrolled into the study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were tested using the PCR method for the following 12 viruses: influenza A, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), respiratory syncytial virus B (RSV B), adenovirus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus 229E/NL63 (hCoV229), coronavirus OC43 (hCoVOC43), parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV-1), parainfluenza virus 2 (PIV-2), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3), and rhinovirus A/B. Coinfections were detected in nine (8 %) patients. Five of the coinfections were related to influenza A (H3N2) virus associated with the following other, single or combined, respiratory viruses: influenza B in one case, hCoV229 in two cases, hCoV229, RSV A, and PIV-2 in one case, and PIV-1, PIV-2, RSV A, RSV B, and adenovirus in one case. The other four coinfections were caused by: adenovirus and hCoVOC43, adenovirus, and rhinovirus, RSV A and PIV-1, influenza B, and RSV B. We did not observe any significant differences in the clinical course of infections caused either by a single or multiple viral factors.


Children; Coinfection; Etiology; Pathogenesis of infection; Respiratory tract disease; Virus

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