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Zookeys. 2015 Nov 26;(540):157-73. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.540.6713. eCollection 2015.

Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae).

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Department of Biology & Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Via A. Ferrata 9, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
Instituto Genética EA Favret, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, 1686 Hurlingham, Provincia Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Facultad de Agronomía y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Florentino Ameghino s/n (4000), Tucumán, Argentina.
Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Jorge Amado km 16, 45650-000 - Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.


We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area.


Anastrepha fraterculus; microsatellites; morphotypes; population genetic differentiation

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