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Sleep Breath. 2016 May;20(2):759-68. doi: 10.1007/s11325-015-1296-6. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Somatic syndromes, insomnia, anxiety, and stress among sleep disordered breathing patients.

Author information

1
Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Sleep Medicine, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.
2
DVA Medical Center, Northport, NY, 11768, USA.
3
GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Health, Parsippany, NJ, 07054, USA.
4
Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Sleep Medicine, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. avram.gold@va.gov.
5
DVA Medical Center, Northport, NY, 11768, USA. avram.gold@va.gov.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia among sleep disordered breathing (SDB) patients is correlated with their levels of somatic arousal, the symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system tone under conditions of stress.

METHODS:

We administered the Body Sensation Questionnaire (BSQ; a 17-item questionnaire with increasing levels of somatic arousal scored 17-85) to 152 consecutive upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients and 150 consecutive obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. From medical records, we characterized each patient in terms of the presence of syndromes and symptoms into three categories: somatic syndromes (six syndromes), anxiety (anxiety disorders, nightmares, use of benzodiazepines), and insomnia (sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and use of hypnotics). For the pooled sample of SDB patients, we modeled the correlation of the BSQ score with the presence of each syndrome/symptom parameter within each of the three categories, with adjustment for male vs. female.

RESULTS:

Mean BSQ scores in females were significantly higher than those in males (32.5 ± 11.1 vs. 26.9 ± 8.2; mean ± SD). Increasing BSQ scores significantly correlated with increasing prevalence rates of somatic syndromes (p < 0.0001), of anxiety (p < 0.0001), and of insomnia (p ≤ 0.0001). In general, females had higher prevalence rates of somatic syndromes and symptoms of anxiety than males at any BSQ score while rates of insomnia were similar.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with SDB, there is a strong association between the level of somatic arousal and the presence of stress-related disorders like somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia.

KEYWORDS:

Body Sensation Questionnaire; Central sensitization syndromes; Chronic stress; Sleep disordered breathing; Somatic arousal; Sympathetic nervous system; Upper airway resistance syndrome

PMID:
26797925
DOI:
10.1007/s11325-015-1296-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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